4 korrik 2010

THE ENIGMA OF TROY..! Troja Gjindet nė Shqipni

(Three hypotheses)

How I discovered Troy

Čedomir Rkman

Čedomir Rkman was born on August 10th 1955 in Kljajićevo where he still lives and writes...
Following a fifteen-year long interest in homerology, on December 31 st 1991 he promoted the hypothesis that: " Troy is located in Albania !" During 1991 and 1992, he published a number of highly regarded homerological articles. He is also the author of a number of plays:
S - Schliemann: Troy is in Asia Minor
P - Price: Troy is in the delta of the Neretva
R - Rkman: Troy is in Albania

The Apollo Project

"The Pillar of Shame", "A handful of medals", "The Reading"... However, rationalization of myths remains his true passion..."The Apollo Project" is the first in a series of four necessary steps in order to reach a complete rationalization of the Balkans and other regions making the headlines. Gods willing, this imagined tetralogy will be supplemented by essays: "The Palladion Road ", "Cadmean Thebes" and "Trintian Culture”. Somewhere between these colossi, he also writes stories - hyperboles, thus weaving a kind of his own Balkans story-manufacture. And so... awaiting the assembly of the gods and the news from the Olympus , his heart is filled with joy for he has seen the pearls of the antique period covered with sand of forgetfulness...

S - Schliemann: Troy is in Asia Minor
P - Price: Troy is in the delta of the Neretva
R - Rkman: Troy is in Albania

The Apollo Project

The essay “The Apollo Project – How I Discovered Troy”, which is essentially a dividing point between two homerologies, has established a new hypothesis concerning Troy which, is in fact, located in the Balkans! This is a highly ambitious homerological work, one of a kind and original, so different from other related homerological works which were cultivated on the soil of traditional homerology, where a strange plant known as ambition has shown its true nature and gone wild or died in the hands of an incapable gardener. This is something that could never have happened to this particular text as it grew on the soil of belief in authenticity of Homer's verses, sticking to the myth and the best philological explanations, never taking on the delusions of traditional homerology and being led by the steady homerological hand all along.

The introductory part of the essay named “And there was Troy“ introduces the enigma of Troy, starting from “And there was chaos…”, proceeding with the golden era, the fire of titanomahia and the domination of Zeus over the family of the Olympic gods, going all the way to the days when the gods decided to found Troy. It is here, at the very beginning, that we come across the first major innovation in the presentation of the myth. Apart from the already traditional root of the Trojan tree of life represented by the arrival of the Skamanders and Teukres from Crete to the area of the future Troy , we encounter another root… Zeus transformed in a white odorous bull sets on a journey towards the land of the Phoenicians and kidnaps Europa… Pain-stricken king Agenor sent his sons: Cilix, Phoenix and Cadmus to find their missing sister. Cadmus searched a half of the antique world never to find Europa… He founded the Cadmean Thebes and married Harmony. However, in old age, the golden thread of fortune led the unhappy couple to the land of the Encheleians (eels)… where they became rulers of the “land of snakes”, the future Iliria and where their son Ilirius was born.

This Ilirius had several sons, including Dardanus, the founder of the Trojan royal line. The suggestion is perfectly clear: Dardanus is Ilirius' son and there are no other Dardanuses apart from the ones from the Balkans, who just before the War of Troy used to live in what is now Albania (Kunor and Dukagjini area)! There Dardanus married Batea, Teucrus' daughter and the Trojan tree began growing rapidly. Dardanus was replaced at the throne by his son Erichtonius who was the wealthiest man according to popular sources. Erichtonius and Astioche had Troy , the future ruler, while Troy and Kaliroia had Ilus, whose destiny was to build the city of Ilion . Ilus was replaced at the throne by his son Laomedon, during whose rule the city was growing rapidly, but also suffered its first destruction by mighty Heracles. Only the youngest Leomedon's son Podarces, who was later named Priam, survived the fall of Ilion . The wise king Priam rebuilt Ilion and expanded the Trojan land so that in the early XII century BC it was bounded by Frigia in the north (the area of Malesia and Prokletije in what is now Albania ) by Lezba and Makares' center in the south (Greek islands of Kefalenia and Levkas today). To the east, it was bounded by the river Esep (the Crni Drim river today) and the mountains forming the frontier with Epirus (Pind nowadays). The Hellespont (the Adriatic sea ) formed the western natural frontier. However, during the ten-year war, the Greeks ravaged almost entire Greater Troy and in the tenth year they reached Ilion (located above the present-day town of Barbullushi in Albania ). And it was in that fatal spring of the year 1186 BC that after only a couple of months under siege the mighty fortress of Ilion was conquered. The Greeks destroyed the buildings and the walls of the Trojan city and left. The gods Poseidon along with Apollo directed all mighty waters flowing from the Ida… There was a flood and it flattened everything by the Hellespont making the antique Ilion disappear. The greater area of Ilion , between the rivers of Scamandar and Simoent (the rivers Bojana and Drim today), the so-called Smaller Troy is the subject of the first part of the essay “The Apollo Project”, titled “The Catalog of locations of the Smaller Troy”. The significance of the defense of the area between the rivers Bojana and Drim is enormous because every hypothesis that fails if no lies are involved in the troubled Smaller Troy has to make its authors think carefully and try and answer the question: go forward or give up? The Catalog of locations of the Smaller Troy is divided into five groups of entries, the first group being the rivers and springs of this area. Of course, the two key locations in this group are the rivers Scamandar, shown at the position 1 on the map, and Simoent 2. The second group are: a river which Homer simply called “The river” and two springs, of a merely local importance. The significance of the two major Trojan rivers for the support of the hypothesis of Troy is enormous, since the requirements placed upon them by the writer of the Iliad in order to confirm their antique identity are also enormous. Homer is unmerciful, the rivers Scamandar and Simoent in Smaller Troy have to merge (V, The Iliad) and then split (VI, the Iliad), flowing parallelly towards the Hellespont . These three requirements cannot be fulfilled if Troy was in Asia Minor, showing the weaknesses of the hypothesis of Troy being in Asia Minor . However, “The Apollo Project” would not be a revolutionary homerological pearl if it did not easily meet those difficult mythological requirements. Let us consider the given map:

The rivers Scamandar (1) and Simoent (2), the rivers Bojana and Drim today do merge, and then split and proceed parallelly towards their mouths in the Hellespont, thus bounding a piece of the antique Trojan land. Moving on, the project also fulfills all special requirements posed by the myth, particularly the one that the Scamandar – Xanthus has to be to the left of the battle-field (the Trojan field) as well as the requirement that most of the locations are situated exactly at the left side. The complexity of this homerological question can best be illustrated by the example of the Sceic (left) gate of the city of Ilion , which is considered to be nonsense by a number of renowned authors! All difficulties are the result of the failure to determine exactly which side is left and which is right. However, once a precise method of research has been applied, all difficulties disappear. Let us look into the matter. That fatal spring of 1186 BC Homer, a member of the allied Greek army gazing from the Greek camp (7), right by the Hellespont, towards the Sun that was rising from the direction of the Black sea, a bit more to the north of Crimea, split the Trojan field in two halves, so that the Scamandar – Ksant was on the left side of the battle-field. The analysis of the method carried out from the position 16, the top of the city of Ilion has confirmed it accuracy, since the Sceic gate was indeed on the left side thus justifying its ancient name. The Scamandar – Xanthus is at the same time the left boundary of the Smaller Troy alongside with which there are Homeric milestones: “Arey's hill” (11), “The Trojan field” (12), “The River” (3), a place called “The Ship” (17), two springs (4) and “Wheet field” (14). The ancient Simoent (2), the river Drim today located in Albania represents the right boundary of the Smaller Troy and apart from the already mentioned relation with the Scamandar river, it should also fulfill other requirements posed in the verses of the Iliad, primarily, the miracle known as the “The Horses of Hera”. Hera set foot on the Smaller Troy “exactly where the Simoent and Scamandar join their currents” and left the horses so that “they would be fed ambrosia by god Simoent”, a requirement fulfilled entirely by the location 18. Then there is the requirement called Arey's race. Of course, the location of the hill (9) fulfills this requirement entirely, and the verses XXI of the Iliad, known as “The Dilemma of Agenor” encircle a number of locations in relation to the Simoent, aligning the following locations correctly: Ilion (16) – the Ilian field (13) – the Simoent (2) – the mountain of Ida, to the east of the Simoent, thus confirming the antique identity of the river Simoent. Already the first group of locations of the Smaller Troy shows a high preciseness of Homer's locations, and gives the answer to the question why Troy is the greatest enigma of the western civilization and why none of the previous locations of Troy never stood scientific scrutiny! The second group of locations of the Smaller Troy includes: the Hellespont , a sandy beach and a port. The Hellespont or Hele's sea (5) is located to the west of the Trojan state, including a part of the Adriatic sea, the Otranto channel and a part of the Ionian sea . It represents a new rationalization based on a valid interpretation of the myth of Hele, who with her brother Frixes flew from Beotia towards Kolhida and there by the Adriatic sea fell into the water and joined with Pont, giving her name to the sea. Valid rationalization has shown that Kolhida is not on the Black sea, but in modern Italy , and besides the already mentioned location by the Adriatic sea, it also gives the location of Tetidina – “The Silver Cave”, in the deepest part of the Adriatic and the location of Nerey's castle and the Nereides. The second location in this group is the port (6), all covered in weed and unfit for use, known only for the fact that rush was collected for the Achilles' tent over there. The third location in this group is the sandy beach (7) where the Greeks went ashore in the finale of the Trojan war arriving in no less than 1186 ships, arranging them according to the principle of “pillars“. This is now the Deti hill in Albania ! At this part of the Trojan soil some 60 to 90 thousand, maybe even a 100.000 of Greek soldiers landed and set up a gigantic tent camp around the ships. The dilemma whether the Greeks landed on the sea shore or sailed partly into the Scamandar reaching Ilion is resolved by the verse X of the Iliad (the return of Diomed and Odysseus into the Greek camp after a successful night campaign, the killing of Dolonus and the capture of Resus' horses) which confirms that after having returned to the camp they took a bath in the sea by the ships. Behind the camp is the Hellespont and in the front is Danian wall! There at the sandy beach we meet a multitude of pictures from the lives of the ancient man from the XII century BC, and at the protruding cape there are the graves of Achilles and Patrocles, “by the Hellespont, at a cape, perched on a high hill to be seen from afar by the sea-farers“! The third group of locations of the Smaller Troy includes: Heracles' dyke, Beautiful Hill, Batia and Areus' hill. Heracles' dyke (Cool, as legend has it, was made to protect Heracles from a sea beast, in other words, its sole purpose was to protect the back of the Smaller Troy from the forces of the sea, and it served in the Iliad (XX) as a chair for the gods who were in favor of the Greeks. The gods in favor of the Trojans were sitting on the opposite of the Beautiful Hill (9). It is a “Hill of beauty“, in a shape of a snake at whose part (Malja Barbulush) was the capital of Troy - Ilion (16). There, in front of the location number 16, is Batia (10), “a steep hill just before the city gate, at a field in the distance, easily taken over from all sides“. Il. II,811-812.

A look at the map shows that the description is indeed convincing! From that hill-top the Trojans watched the Greeks embark onto the sandy beach, which is another requirement this hill fulfills quite easily! And finally, the last location in this group is the already mentioned Arey's hill (11), elevation of 167.

Fields and plains represent the fourth group of locations in the Smaller Troy. They are ancient plateaus on which mortals, half-gods and gods marched. The first location in this group is the imposing Trojan field, known as Velji Poj today (12), located between the sandy beach, the Greek camp, the Danian wall of the Greek camp, the port at the southern side, the Heracles' dyke (Cool and the Beautiful Hill (9) at the right side. Approximate boundaries of the Trojan field at the left side are: the Scamandar, “Arey's hill“, “The River“, Il's grave and a road in poor condition, periodically flooded by the waters of Xanthus. The second location in this group is the Ilian field (13), an area bounded by the Beautiful Hill (9) in the south and Batia (10) in the north. Its boundary at the right side is the Simoent, and at the left side it is bounded by two springs “The Giant's Beech“ right by the local “River“ (3). It was on that field that the last act of the antique tragedy known as “The Trojan War” took place... There in front of the walls of Ilion Achilles and mighty Hector run their glorious triple circle of death and great Hector and many other heroes met their faith. Moving on across the Ilian field, Batia and the two springs towards the Scamandar we come across the unreaped “Wheat field“ (14), the last location in this group which confirms that the siege of Ilion lasted not 10 years (misconception of traditional homerology), but only a couple of months!

The fifth group of locations of the Smaller Troy includes: the Danian wall and the city of Ilion with holy Timbra. The Danian wall (15), the first location in this group, situated on the Trojan field, in front of the Greek ships was the greatest building feat of that spring of 1186 BC. The wall which grew almost over night on the foundations of a Greek mass grave, was built of stone and wood and had several watch-towers and two gates, one at the middle and the other to the left side of the battle-field. In front of the wall there was a dyke between which and the wall there was an open space to hold night watches. The number of troops at that site was 700! After the fall of Ilion and the arrival of the Greeks, the Danian wall was completely destroyed in a flood that took the beams and the stones to the sea of Hellespont . The second location in this group is the city of Ilion (16) located at the Beautiful Hill (Malja Barbullushit today). The city was the center of the ancient world which is proven by lines going into three different directions: towards Lovćen, Rila (Musala) and the cape of Santa Maria of Leuka intersecting at the location of Ilion and splitting the circle (360°) into three equal parts of 120° each. This was confirmed after the complete rationalization of the antique world. Let us consider the map of Ilion : the outer city walls form a regular hexagon, and were built by god Poseidon himself. While the inner walls were built by the Trojans following the lines directed in three already mentioned directions, splitting the city into three parts: The Lower City (A), Kalikolona (B) and Pergam (C), parts of the Upper City . The Lower City was located at the north-eastern slope of the Beautiful Hill and it was there that the Trojan folk lived, on a very small area, including many refugees and allies. The residential buildings of the the Lower City were completely encircled by a wall, while the inner walls divided it from the Upper City , and the outer ones from the Ilian field. The outer city walls were built like an integral defense system including watch-towers. The dominant tower was The Big Tower (4), which was at the central part of the defense wall and which represented the heart of the city's defense system serving also as a gallery, where that spring of 1186 BC the royal assembly was held. A part of the defense system were the city's gates. The central one was called the Sceic gate (2), to the left of the Big Tower . To the right there was the Dardanian door (3), named so because there started the road going all the way to the state of Dardania via the Ilian field, the Simoent and the Ida. The third city gate was at the north side – “The Northern Gate“ was the last element of the defense system of the Lower City . The Lower City was cut across by broad city streets after which Ilion was known as “the city of broad ways “. The main city street went downwards from the Upper City (Kalikolona) through the Lower City all the way to the Sceic gate and was the focal point of the city.

Kalikolona (B) is a part of the Upper City situated on a hill bearing the same name. It was the favorite spot for the Trojan nobility: King Priam, his sons, daughters and sons-in-law. It was surrounded by a double wall (towards the holy city of Pergam and the Lower City ). Communication between Kalikolona and the Lower City was established through the porch and the “First Door“ (5) in the wall dividing two city parts. “The First Door“ was named so because it actually was the first door the Trojan nobility had to go through on their way anywhere outside of Ilion . Kalikolona had magnificent buildings, first of all, the castle of king Priam (6) with fifty rooms on one side and twelve on the other (7) to host the king's daughters and sons-in-law. Right by the king's castle there were stables for horses and mules known as “Priam's stables“ (Cool. Not far away from the castle there were the castles of his two sons: Hector's (9) and Parid's castle (10). The last location in this group is the holy city of Pergam (C) erected at the highest plateau of the city of Ilion , with wealthy temples and sacrificial altars devoted to various gods. Access to the holy city of Pergam was granted only to the chosen ones – priests of the Olympic gods, while common people had this privilege only for the occasion of the offering of sacrifices. The most important of all sacrificial altars in Pergam was the one dedicated to the almighty Giant (11), god Zeus ( Ilion was his favorite city). Then there was the temple of the goddess Athina (12), as old as the city of Ilion itself. The temple was the burial place of Palladion! At the wall dividing Pergam and Kalikolona, there was the Pergam tower (13) with doors whose keys were in the possession of the priests and members of the royal family only. Finally, as the jewel of the holy city of Pergam , there was the temple of god Apollo, the supreme protector of Troy (14). Right by the temple, towards Heracles' dyke and a water hole, there was a garden dedicated to Apollo of Timbra, which was another name for Pergam. This was the burial place of Sibila Herofila, and, I believe, of great Hector himself.

This is where my account of the fifth group of locations and the first part of the essay “Catalog of the locations of the Smaller Troy“ ends.

The second part of the essay named „Catalog of the locations of the Greater Troy“, consists of four groups of locations, all in the function of shedding some light on the phenomenon of the Greater Troy, posed in the Iliad (Achilles says to Priam): “I hear, old man, even you were happy ones, as far as Lezb, Macares' center, Frigia and the endless Hellespont you ruled“. Having brilliantly solved all the great enigmas Homer had created for ambitious researchers, “Project Apollo” has revealed a new and final map of the rationalized territories of the Greater Troy. Let us take a look:

The position 1 represents the starting point, the rationalized Smaller Troy with Ilion as the capital. The position 2 is Dardania, founded on the first group of locations of the Greater Troy, at the mountain of Ida , the dominant geographical feature of the area. The location of the Trojan Ida is determined in the relation with the Simoent (the Drim), the Smaller Troy and the rivers Crni Drim and Maca, which together with the already mentioned Drim create a form in the shape of a boy's head. It is right at the position of the throat that the highest peak of the Trojan Ida is located. The ancient name of this peak was Gargar – “throat“ which is now known as the peak Deja, 2246 meters high. Fascinating, isn't it? The political dimension of this area, the state of Dardania was the only homeland of the Dardanians until the fall of Ilion in 1186 BC, meaning that no other Dardanians ever existed (the Dardanians in Asia Minor are just a misconception by the traditional homerology). The position 3 is Likia, whose location is determined by a good rationalization of the ancient river Scamandar – Xanthus , the Bojana today. It is certain that Likia was located “on the other side of Xanthus “ – on the outer left side of the Smaller Troy! Likia covered the area around the Skadar lake which is today divided by Albania and Montenegro , and had Xanthus as its capital, which was located just above the modern Shkodėr . The location 4 represents the ancient Frigia, situated around two rivers flowing from Ida (the second and third location): the Simoent and the Kares. The Simeont (the Drim) has to fulfill yet another requirement, an etymological one this time – namely, its name essentially means “blunt nose“. A mere glance at the map is enough to realize that the Simoent, at the already mentioned shape of the head, just before merging with the Xanthus, makes a turn which resembles the shape of a nose, and not just any type of nose, but a “blunt nose“! The second Frigian river also has an etymological requirement to fulfill. The Kares, today called the Valbona in Albania is the “floating hair“. And indeed it is floating hair at the head of the mentioned shape of the head. A similar etymological request concernes the state of Frigia itself – it is an “eyebrow country”. This is more than obvious, isn't it! The position 5 represents the ancient Lidia – Meonia, situated at the fourth and the fifth location of the rivers flowing from the Ida – the rivers Heptapor and Res. The Heptapor, today the Beli Drim, flowing down the tame Metohija (Kosovo) and partly through Albania has to fulfill not less than three etymological requirements. The Heptapor has to have seven major tributaries, it has to be in a shape of a “tree“ and it has to form the shape of a Y together with another two Trojan rivers flowing into the Hellespont at the territory of the Smaller troy. The Beli Drim does have seven major tributaries: the Prizrenska Bistrica, the Topluga, the Erenik, the Dečanska Bistrica, the Miru a, the Pećka Bistrica and the Klina. A glance at the map shows that the Beli Drim indeed looks like a tree and it also forms the shape of a Y with the rivers Drim (the Simoent) and the Crni Drim (the Esep). Clearly, the Beli Drim is the ancient Heptapor! The ancient river Res needs not fulfill such numerous requirements, it is simply a tuft of hair of the head and the eighth branch towards the root of the Heptapor tree. The ancient Res is today the Ljuma flowing through Albania and Serbia and Montenegro . At the area between the rivers Heptapor and Res and further in the direction of north-east was the state of Lidia – Meonia. The position 6 represents the antique Zelia, situated at the banks of three rivers flowing down from the Ida: the Esep, the Rodij and the Grenik. Zelia is the state covering the lowest part of Ida, a land of the people drinking the black water of the Esep. Of course, the ancient Esep which forms the letter Y with the Simoent and Heptapor is now called the Crni Drim, while the Rodij and the Grenik are merely “red roses“, rivers Radika and Sateska in modern Macedonia. The state of Zelia, in what is now Macedinia around the Ohrid lake fulfills an extra requirement: Zelia is supposed to imitate the shape of the greater area of the city of Ilion . Fascinating, isn't it! The positions 7 and 8 represent the ancient states of Kilikia and Lelegia. They are the third group of locations of the Greater Troy. These two states are joined together by an episode from the ninth year of the Trojan war, known as “Aeneas' escape “ from Achilles, from Dardania at the Ida thought the valley of the river known today as the Fani towards the Hellespont, and all the way to the lower and middle part of the river Maca, in the area of the Miridits in Albania. It is there that the magnificent Kilian cities of Lirnes and Etion's Thebes are located. Crossing the river Maca in Albania , we set foot on the ancient Lelegian land... The key when rationalizing the Lelegian land is a “chain of seven Lelegian cities“ with Pedas as the capital, as well as the myth of Loker from Sam who was ordered by the oracle to remain at the land where he gets bitten by an “ancient dog“. Modern Skenderbegut has valid evidence of its identity – two shapes in one geographical feature: a dog and a wild rose flower. The fourth group of locations of the Greater Troy are the travels of the gods and mortals. The first among them – the travel of god Zeus. Zeus' gaze from the Ida towards the Door of Otranto gives a good starting point when determining the locations of not less than for ancient states: The Hellespontian Thrace (9), located between the rivers Arzen and Shkumbini in Albania, Mizia (10), the area of Musakia nowadays, among the rivers Shkumbini, Semeni and Devoli, Hipemolg (11), at the area between the Albanian rivers Semeni and Voju a, at the territory around the center of Malakaster and M. Trebe inj, and finally the state of Abia (12) located in relation to the Albanian rivers Voju a and Su ica. This group of locations gives a few more valid rationalizations, first of all the ones concerning the states of the Berbices – Bitinia (13), Perkota, Adrestia (20) and finally Arizba (21). The travels by Hera and Hipnos give a valid rationalization of the island of Lemnos (14), the island of Sazan in modern Albania, and Imbra (15), the peninsula Karaburn, of the ancient “twins“. The travels by god Poseidon give rationalizations of: the island Tened (16), proving that the “the ax of Tened“ must be Corfu judging by the island's shape, as well as the location of the Fanes' cave, where Poseidon left his horses. This is now the island of Fanos , and finally the land of the Cicones (17), on the opposite side from Tened ( Corfu ). The Kikones lived in the ancient cities of Izmar, Kolon and Maronia on the continental part of the Greater Troy. Their locations coincide with the modern Albanian towns of Butrinto, Saranda and Lukova. The Kikones were the neighbors of the Molotians (1Cool, a people living by the river Kalamas today, on the way from Tened ( Corfu ) towards Tessalia, via the Zigos ridge. And finally, the last of the gods' travels is the one by goddess Aphrodite, based on the myth of Faon, an ugly old man who was rejuvenated by the goddess of love and the poetess Sapfo who paid with her own life this second Faon's youthful beauty. This gives proof that the ancient Lezb (19), that “toad“ above (Argolida is the frog below), is now the Greek island of Kefalonia . This location concludes the forth group of the Catalog of locations of the Greater Troy, the Catalog itself and the second part of the essay.

The third and the last part of the essay rationalizes the outer locations of the Greater Troy: the state of Karia (central part of Monenegro), antique Iliria (XII century BC) located north of the river Bojana, among Boka Kotorska, the Adriatic, Lovćen and the Skadar lake, indicating the location of Zakint (Boka Kotorska), Hrisa (Risan) and the Oracle of Delfi perched upon a hill above the city. This also rationalizes the phenomenon known as the “Sacred palm“, the witness to the birth of the divine twins Artemis and Apollo! Of course, this part of the book is titled “The divine boy“ and it gives the answer to the question: Who is that marvelous contour in the relief of the Greater Troy in modern Albania , who is the divine youth? There should be no doubt, it is the image of god Apollo, the supreme protector of Troy, and an authentic Trojan deity, the guardian of the Door of Otranto, the founder of medicine, a god who knows the secret of Helen's place of birth (a location near Tirana), and the basic principles of the essay “Project Apollo“, an essay that manages to rationalize a mythical story in a convincing way, as well as to establish excellent communication with its readers! The best proof is at the actual end of the essay where the portrait of Homer, the writer of the Iliad – the oldest book of the European civilization dating back to the XII century BC, is presented as a kind of a riddle.

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